• Internet protocol: IP is responsible for addressing a data packet. IP encapsulates the data packet that is to be transmitted and adds an address header. The header contains information about the IP addresses of the sender and recipient. The order in which the packets are sent or received is irrelevant to the protocol. It also does not guarantee that packages will be delivered. It is only responsible for the address.

Special IP addresses

Each of the classes has restrictions on the ranges of IP addresses that are allowed to be used. This table lists the most common.

Address rangeareadescription
10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255Private networkUsed for local communication in a private network
127.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255HostUsed for loopback addresses
172.16.0.0 through 172.31.255.255Private networkUsed for local communication in a private network
192.88.99.0 through 192.88.99.255InternetReserved
192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255Private networkUsed for local communication in a private network
255.255.255.255SubnetReserved for the destination address “Limited Broadcast”