WordPress widgets add content and functionality to your sidebars. Examples are the standard widgets that come with WordPress. For categories, tag cloud, search, etc., plugins often add their own widgets.

Widgets were originally developed to give the user a simple and easy-to-use way to control the design and structure of the WordPress theme. This feature is now available for properly “widgeted” WordPress themes that contain headers, footers and other elements.

Widgets do not require any coding experience or expertise. You can use the Theme Customizer or under depiction> Widgets added, removed, and rearranged in the WordPress administration screens.

Some WordPress widgets offer customization and options such as filling out forms, including or excluding data and information, optional images, and other customization features.

The Appearance Widgets screen explains how to use the various widgets that come with WordPress.

Plugins that come with widgets can be found in the WordPress plugins directory.

Source: https://wordpress.org/support/article/wordpress-widgets/